Standard particles

u

c

t

g

H

d

s

b

γ

e

μ

τ

Z

νe

νμ

ντ

W

Quarks

Leptons

Gauge bosons

Other Bosons

Cosmic rays

Kaons

Pi mesons

Accelerators

Energy

Up Quark

Baryon number: +13
Charge: +23 e
Spin: ½
Rest mass: ~2.3 MeV⁄c2

The up quark is an elementary fermion which experiences the strong interaction, the weak interaction, electromagnetic force, and gravity.

The up quark can decay into a down quark during β+ decay via the weak interaction, as indicated by this Feynman diagram:

Charm Quark

Baryon number: +13
Charge: +23 e
Spin: ½
Rest mass: ~1.29 GeV⁄c2

The charm quark is an unstable elementary fermion, which like all other quarks, experiences the strong interaction, the weak interaction, the electromagnetic force, and gravity.

Top Quark

Baryon number: +13
Charge: +23 e
Spin: ½
Rest mass: ~172.44 GeV⁄c2
Half life: <10−23s

The top quark is an elementary fermion, which experiences all four fundamental interactions.
Top quarks, having such high mass are unstable and decay via the weak force most often into bottom quarks.

Gluon

Charge: 0 e
Rest mass: 0 eV⁄c2
Spin: 1
Color charge: 8 types (varies)

The gluon is the fundamental particle which acts as the gauge boson for the fundamental strong interaction. There are 8 types of gluon; a gluon has a color and an anti-color charge.
While the gluon mediates the fundamental strong interaction (which holds quarks together in hadrons), neutral pi mesons are responsible for the residual strong force which binds the nucleus together

This Feynman diagram shows the interaction between a green and blue quark, mediated by a green anti-blue gluon, allowing the quarks to swap color charge.

Higgs Boson

Charge: 0 e
Spin: 0
Rest mass: ~125.09 GeV⁄c2

The extremely massive Higgs boson, is a boson which is thought to be a mediator particle of the interaction between matter and the Higgs field. The higgs field is an energy field thought to permeate through the entire universe, and is what gives matter its mass.

Down Quark

Baryon number: +13
Charge: -13 e
Spin: ½
Rest mass: ~4.8 MeV⁄c2

The down quark is a fundamental fermion that interacts with all 4 fundamental forces

The down quark can decay into an up quark during β- decay via the weak interaction as per this Feynman diagram:

Strange Quark

Baryon number: +13
Charge: -13 e
Spin: ½
Rest mass: ~95 MeV⁄c2

The strange quark is an unstable fundamental fermionic particle that most often decays via the weak interaction into an up quark.
The strange quark is called strange partly for the reason that it isn't affected by the residual strong interaction, meaning that kaons can decay outside the nucleus .
A kaon consists of a strange quark and an antiquark or an anti strange and a regular quark.

Bottom Quark

Baryon number: +13
Charge: -13 e
Spin: ½
Rest mass: ~4.18 GeV⁄c2

The bottom quark is an unstable fundamental fermion which decays into either a top quark or a charm quark.

Photon

Charge: 0 e
Rest mass: 0 eV⁄c2
Spin: 1

The photon is a stable fundamental particle, the gauge boson for the electromagnetic force. Photons are also quanta for electromagnetic radiation.
Photons travel at the speed of light when in a vacuum, this is because they have no rest mass.
The following is a Feynman diagram showing the electrostatic interaction between two electrons with the virtual photon as the mediator:

Electron

Charge: -1 e
Spin: ½
Rest mass: 0.511 MeV⁄c2
Lepton number: +1

The electron is a stable fundamental lepton which interacts with all of the fundamental forces except the strong force.
The electron is electrostatically attracted to the nuclei of atoms which they orbit in a cloud.
The properties of electrons allow them to move electronic charge and are the basis for how electricity works.
Electrons are responsible for all chemical reactions.

Muon

Charge: -1 e
Spin: ½
Rest mass: 105.658 MeV⁄c2
Lepton number: +1

The muon, like all other leptons is an elementary fermionic particle.
The muon, being negatively charged is known as the heavy electron as it has quite similar properties except for its mass. And due to its high mass, it is unstable.

This Feynman diagram shows the decay of a muon into a muon neutrino, also producing an electron and electron antineutrino:

Tau Lepton

Charge: -1 e
Spin: ½
Rest mass: 1.77682 GeV⁄c2
Lepton number: +1

The tau lepton is just a muon that has eaten a few too many doughnuts.

Z Boson

Charge: 0 e
Spin: 1
Rest mass: 91.1876 GeV⁄c2

The Z boson, along with the W boson is an elementary spin 1 particle which is a mediator of the weak nuclear force.
One difference between the W and Z boson is that the Z boson has no charge, whereas the W boson can either have a positive or negative charge.
W and Z bosons are kind of wierd in that they are the only gauge bosons with rest mass.

Electron Neutrino

Charge: 0 e
Spin: ½
Rest mass: Tiny but not zero
Lepton number: +1

The Electron neutrino is a neutrino which has been produced alongside a positron.
It has barely any mass and can turn into any other kind of neutrino.

Muon Neutrino

Charge: 0 e
Spin: ½
Rest mass: Tiny but not zero
Lepton number: +1

The Muon neutrino is a neutrino which has been produced alongside an antimuon.
It has barely any mass and can turn into any other kind of neutrino.

Tau Neutrino

Charge: 0 e
Spin: ½
Rest mass: Tiny but not zero
Lepton number: +1

The Tau neutrino is a neutrino which has been produced alongside an antitau.
It has barely any mass and can turn into any other kind of neutrino.

W Boson

Charge: 0 e
Spin: 1
Rest mass: 80.385 GeV⁄c2

The W boson is an elementary spin 1 gauge boson which is one of the 2 mediators of the weak nuclear force (W for weak). The W+ boson is antiparticle to the W- boson

Quarks

Quarks are fundamental fermions, which experience all four fundamental interactions. Matter quarks have a baryon number of +13.
Antimatter quarks have a baryon number of -13.

A quark can have a color charge of red green or blue. Anti quarks can have a color charge of anti-red, anti-green or anti-blue.
When two quarks are within 2.5fm of eachother, they exchange gluons, constantly changing color charge, and create a strong color-force field. Which, if stretched far enough, gives it enough energy for it to be energetically beneficial to break and create a new quark-antiquark pair (because you have to put that much energy in to stretch the field that far and the energy can't just dissapear, same principle as gravitational potential energy), which is why quarks can never exist outside of hadrons; Either a meson, which consists of a quark and an antiquark or a baryon, which consists of 3 quarks of colours which sum to white.
Baryons must contain 3 quarks which are either all matter or all antimatter.

Leptons

Leptons are fundamental fermions which do not interact with the strong force (ie. they have no color charge).

Gauge Bosons

Gauge bosons are the fundamental force carrying particles such as gluons, photons, Z and W bosons.

Other bosons

Bosons are force carrying particles, which pop into and out of existence very quickly, they exist to mediate forces such as the strong nuclear, weak nuclear, electromagnetic, and gravity. The only boson we know of (at the moment) which we don't classify as a gauge boson is the Higgs boson, which is the particle responsible for giving matter mass.

Cosmic rays

Cosmic rays are radiation, high energy nuclei or other particles travelling through space at close to the speed of light. Some cosmic rays have immensely high energies of up to 1000 TeV, however most are more like 0.3 GeV, cosmic rays are usually heavier elements rather than light ones like hydrogen. When cosmic rays hit particles in the atmosphere it has the same effect as the inside of a particle accelerator, they collide and produce lots of lower energy particles. Protons in the cosmic rays collide with particles in the atmosphere to produce positive, negative, and neutral Pi and K mesons which eventually decay into muons, electrons, positrons, antimuons, Gamma rays, and neutrinos. The muons from these events do make it as far as the ground.
The lowest energy cosmic rays that hit earth come from the sun, this is known as solar wind. No one really knows where the high energy cosmic rays come from, but there is evidence which points to supernovae.

Kaons

Kaons are mesons that contain a strange quark or antiquark, Kaons can have strangeness of +1 or -1 but never 0. Kaons are produced in collision events such as when cosmic rays hit particles in the atmosphere, or in a particle accelerator.
This Feynman diagram shows a K+ meson decaying into an anti muon and a muon neutrino:




This Feynman diagram shows a K0 meson decaying into a positive and negative pion:

Pi mesons

Pi mesons are any meson which is a combination of up and down quarks, pions cannot have strangeness.

This Feynman diagram shows a π+ meson decaying into an antimuon and a muon neutrino:

Particle accelerators

Particle accelerators like the LHC at CERN in switzerland are designed to smash sub-atomic particles such as hadrons together at near light speeds by accelerating them by using the electromagnetic force(magnets, and these cool things called RF Cavities).

Energy

Everything is made up of energy, and energy must be conserved. The total amount of energy in a system must remain constant.
So the gravitational potential energy in a ball is converted in a 1:1 ratio into kinetic energy as it falls: mgh = ½mv2
Energy spent in action = Energy gained in reaction, any loss in one form of energy is transferred ot another form of energy, every action is an energy transfer.

All of the particles on this page always want to be in their lowest energy state(entropy), as per the second law of thermodynamics. This is why a top quark will decay for instance, because it can transfer all of its energy to particles with lower energy states via decay, entropy increases by doing so, making it energetically beneficial.

Up Antiquark

Baryon number: -13
Charge: -23 e
Spin: ½
Rest mass: ~2.3 MeV⁄c2

The up quark is an elementary fermion which experiences the strong interaction, the weak interaction, electromagnetic force, and gravity.

The up antiquark is the antiparticle to the up quark, and thus has opposite charge and baryon number.

Charm Antiquark

Baryon number: -13
Charge: -23 e
Spin: ½
Rest mass: ~1.29 GeV⁄c2

The charm quark is an unstable elementary fermion, which like all other quarks, experiences the strong interaction, the weak interaction, the electromagnetic force, and gravity.

Top  Antiquark

Baryon number: -13
Charge: -23 e
Spin: ½
Rest mass: ~172.44 GeV⁄c2
Half life: <10−23s

The top quark is an elementary fermion, which experiences all four fundamental interactions.

Down Antiquark

Baryon number: -13
Charge: +13 e
Spin: ½
Rest mass: ~4.8 MeV⁄c2

The down quark is a fundamental fermion that interacts with all 4 fundamental forces

The down antiquark is the antiparticle to the down quark.

Strange Antiquark

Baryon number: -13
Charge: +13 e
Spin: ½
Rest mass: ~95 MeV⁄c2
Strangeness: +1

The strange quark is an unstable fundamental fermionic particle that most often decays via the weak interaction into an up quark.
The strange quark is called strange partly for the reason that it isn't affected by the residual strong interaction, meaning that kaons can decay outside the nucleus .
The strange quark is an oddity, in that the quantum property strangeness for a strange antiquark is +1, but for a strange quark it is -1, it really is strange.
A kaon consists of a strange quark and an antiquark or an anti strange and a regular quark.

Bottom Antiquark

Baryon number: -13
Charge: +13 e
Spin: ½
Rest mass: ~4.18 GeV⁄c2

The bottom antiquark is an unstable fundamental fermion.

Positron

Charge: +1 e
Spin: ½
Rest mass: 0.511 MeV⁄c2
Lepton number: -1

The positron is a stable fundamental antimatter lepton which interacts with all of the fundamental forces except the strong force.

Antimuon

Charge: +1 e
Spin: ½
Rest mass: 105.658 MeV⁄c2
Lepton number: -1

The antimuon, like all other antimatter leptons is an elementary fermionic particle.
The antimuon, being positively charged could be viewed as the heavy positron as it has quite similar properties except for its mass. And due to its high mass, it is unstable.

Antitau

Charge: +1 e
Spin: ½
Rest mass: 1.77682 GeV⁄c2
Lepton number: -1

The antitau lepton is just an antimuon that has eaten a few too many antidoughnuts.

Electron Antineutrino

Charge: 0 e
Spin: ½
Rest mass: Tiny but not zero
Lepton number: -1

The Electron antineutrino is an antineutrino which has been produced alongside an electron.
It has barely any mass and can turn into any other flavour of antineutrino.

Muon Antineutrino

Charge: 0 e
Spin: ½
Rest mass: Tiny but not zero
Lepton number: -1

The Muon antineutrino is an antineutrino which has been produced alongside a muon.
It has barely any mass and can turn into any other flavour of neutrino.

Tau Antineutrino

Charge: 0 e
Spin: ½
Rest mass: Tiny but not zero
Lepton number: -1

The Tau antineutrino is an antineutrino which has been produced alongside a tau lepton.
It has barely any mass and can turn into any other flavour of neutrino.